Text 6. Henry Ford (1863-1947)

Fig. 8. Henry Ford Pre-question: What is Henry Ford famous for?

6.1. Words and word combinations to be remembered:

1. to credit приписывать (кому-л. совершение какого-л. действия)
2. assembly line, moving belt конвейер
3. to revolutionize пропагандировать революционные идеи
4. to tinker чинить
5. part-time employee работающий на неполную ставку
6. horseless carriage безлошадная повозка
7. to sell (sold, sold) продавать
8.to proclaim провозглашать, объявлять
9. multitude множество; большое число; масса
10. inexpensive недорогой
11.to offer предлагать
12. solution решение
13. division of labor разделение труда
14.to be unable быть неспособным
15.to meet the enormous demand удовлетворять огромным требованиям
16. instead of вместо того чтобы
17. proved to be reliable доказал Text 6. Henry Ford (1863-1947) надежность
18. to lower the cost снижать стоимость
19. to drop the price сбросить цену
20. to be responsible for быть ответственным за
21. international celebrity звезда мировой величины
22. savings сбережения
23.along во время, в соответствии
24. manufacturer предприниматель, промышленник
25. customer покупатель
26. affordable возможный, допустимый, по средствам
27. chassis шасси, ходовая часть
28. stunning оглушающий,ошеломляющий, великолепный
29. irrevocably безвозвратно
30. urbanization patterns модели урбанизации
31. the growth of suburbia рост пригородов
32. entrance вход, вступление, поступление
33. agrarian сельскохозяйственный
34. prior бывший
35. youth молодежь
36. restoration восстановление, реконструкция
37. longing for сильное желание, стремление, жажда (чего-л.)
38. to sponsor спонсор (лицо, организация, финансирующие какое-л. мероприятие, организацию)
39.idyllic идиллический
40. rural деревенский, сельский
41.ample богатый Text 6. Henry Ford (1863-1947), изобильный, обильный
42. to incorporate регистрировать, оформлять (общество)
43. in order для того чтобы
44. to convert переоборудовать, перестраивать
45. huge gain огромная прибыль

5.2. Read and translate the text:

Most people credit Henry Ford with inventing the automobile. The fact is he didn't - such a complex machine is the result of a combination of technologies developed by many people over time. He invented however the assembly line, which revolutionized the way we make cars, and how much they cost.

Henry Ford was born July 30, 1863, on his family's farm in Dearborn, Michigan. From the time he was a young boy Text 6. Henry Ford (1863-1947), Ford enjoyed tinkering with machines. Farm work and a job in a Detroit machine shop afforded him ample opportunities to experiment. He later worked as a part-time employee for the Westinghouse Engine Company. By 1896, Ford had constructed his first horseless carriage which he sold in order to finance work on an improved model.

Ford incorporated the Ford Motor Company in 1903, proclaiming, I will build a car for the great multitude. In October 1908, he did so, offering the Model T for $850 The Model T was inexpensive for its day, and proved to be reliable and easy to operate. It quickly became Text 6. Henry Ford (1863-1947) very popular; and soon Ford found he was unable to meet the enormous demand for his cars.Ford's solution was to invent a moving industrial production line. By installing a moving belt in his factory, employees would be able to build cars one piece at a time, instead of one car at a time. This principle, called division of labor, allowed workers to focus on doing one thing very well, rather than being responsible for a number of tasks.

Ford found his new system produced cars quickly and efficiently; so efficiently that it considerably lowered the cost Text 6. Henry Ford (1863-1947) of assembling the cars. He decided to pass these savings along to his customers, and in 1915 dropped the price of the Model T to $290. That year, he sold 1 million cars.

By 1914, his Highland Park, Michigan plant, using innovative production techniques, could turn out a complete chassis every 93 minutes. This was a stunning improvement over the earlier production time of 728 minutes. Using a constantly-moving assembly line, subdivision of labor, and careful coordination of operations, Ford realized huge gains in productivity.

In 1914, Ford began paying his employees five dollars a day, nearly doubling the wages offered by other manufacturers. He cut the Text 6. Henry Ford (1863-1947) workday from nine to eight hours in order to convert the factory to a three-shift workday. Ford's mass-production techniques would eventually allow for the manufacture of a Model T every 24 seconds. His innovations made him an international celebrity.



Ford's affordable Model T irrevocably altered American society. As more Americans owned cars, urbanization patterns changed. The United States saw the growth of suburbia, the creation of a national highway system, and a population entranced with the possibility of going anywhere anytime. Ford witnessed many of these changes during his lifetime, all the while Text 6. Henry Ford (1863-1947) personally longing for the agrarian lifestyle of his youth. In the years prior to his death on April 7, 1947, Ford sponsored the restoration of an idyllic rural town called Greenfield Village.

6.3. After you have read:

I. Make up a sentence of two parts:

1. Most people credit Henry Ford 1. in order to convert the factory to a three-shift workday.
2.He invented however the assembly line, 2. all the while personally longing for the agrarian lifestyle of his youth.
3. He later worked as a part-time employee 3. which revolutionized the way we make cars, and how much they cost.
4. Ford's solution was Text 6. Henry Ford (1863-1947) 4. for the Westinghouse Engine Company.
5. He cut the workday from nine to eight hours 5. with inventing the automobile.
6.Ford's mass-production techniques would eventually 6. urbanization patterns changed.
7. As more Americans owned cars, 7. to invent a moving industrial production line.
8. Ford witnessed many of these changes during his lifetime, 8. allow for the manufacture of a Model T every 24 seconds.

II. Complete these sentences taken from the text:

1. He invented however …

2. From the time he was a young boy …

3. He later worked as …

4. By installing a moving belt …

5. Ford found his new system …

6. In 1914, Ford began …

7. Ford witnessed …


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